This is a Japanese Woodblock print book (which is a sub-category of what is referred to a ‘Ehon’, picture books). The prints are designed by an artist (in this case, the famous Hokusai) and then carved by professional carvers (and then printed by professional printers). This book series was almost certainly created as a result of the popularity of Hokusai’s famous 36 Views of Mount Fuji (the one with the great wave).
Hokusai first started to publish the 36 Views print series in 1830. It was incredibly successful – in part due to his portrayal of the subject matter – but also because it was one of the first prints to make extensive use of Prussian Blue (a new ink import from China and Europe).
While this particular ehon doesn’t have any color, it certainly does have the fascinating charisma and design that is ever-present in Hokusai’s work.
Edo-era ehon were created as low-cost ways for people to get complete collections of their favorite prints. Since the prints were only in black it made it very easy to mass produce. (Most color prints were a mixture of black line and color prints – oftentimes publishers would do print runs of just the black line prints as a way to sell cheaper prints more efficiently.)